The Relationship Between Vocabulary Depth and Argumentative Essay Writing Proficiency Among IELTS Test Takers in Pakistan
Keywords:language proficiency, correlation, vocabulary depth, argumentative essay writing, IELTS test-takers, statistical package for social sciences
The main object of this correlational study was to determine the relationship between vocabulary depth and argumentative essay writing proficiency among Pakistani IELTS test takers. Students with greater vocabulary knowledge and discourse expertise would produce texts of higher quality as compared to students with less of these skills. For this purpose, it manipulated three instruments for collecting the required data: a prompt for writing an argumentative essay, an IELTS band descriptor for scoring writing tasks, and the Word Association Test (WAT) for assessing vocabulary depth knowledge. It involved 129 Pakistani IELTS test-takers as its population. The sample comprised 42 females and 87 male participants. The data was analysed using SPSS version 23. Pearson's product moment analysis was used to determine the relationship between both continuous variables (vocabulary depth and argumentative essay writing), and the results revealed a negative or weak relationship between vocabulary depth and IELTS essay band scores (r = -.032, p =.721). The current findings concluded that there was no statistically significant correlation between both variables. Furthermore, this research study would have certain suggestions for teachers, test designers, and material originators on how to incorporate the dimension of word associations into the creation of word knowledge. It would have some pedagogical implications and instructions for increasing linguistic aptitude levels, which would be useful in academic institutions, language assessment, and language teaching and learning centres such as IELTS training centers.
Abdelrahim, A. A., & Abdelrahim, M. A. (2020). Teaching and assessing metadiscoursal features in argumentative writing: A professional development training for EFL teachers. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 30(1), pp. 70-91.
Afshari, S., & Tavakoli, M. (2017). The relationship between depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 6(3), pp. 13-24.
Akbarian, I. (2010). The comparative development of vocabulary breadth and depth, and academic vocabulary for ESP/EAP Learners. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), pp. 1-22.
Alonso, A. C. (2014). Productive vocabulary knowledge of Spanish EFL learners. Revista Electrónica de Lingüística Aplicada, 13(1), pp. 39-56.
Álvarez, T. (2001). Text’s expositive-explicative argumentative. Barcelona: Octaedro.
Asher, R. E., & Simpson, J. M. (1993). The encyclopedia of language and linguistics.
Baba, K. (2009). Aspects of lexical proficiency in writing summaries in a foreign language. Journal of second language writing, 18(3), pp. 191-208.
Babayiğit, S. (2015). The dimensions of written expression: Language group and gender differences. Learning and Instruction, 35, pp. 33-41.
Batty, O. (2007). Vocabulary depth in written and oral assessment. In JALT 2006 conference proceedings (pp. 1100-1108).
Brown, G. T., Glasswell, K., & Harland, D. (2004). Accuracy in the scoring of writing: Studies of reliability and validity using a New Zealand writing assessment system. Assessing writing, 9(2), pp. 105-121.
Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge university press.
Chala, P. A., & Chapetón, C. M. (2012). EFL argumentative essay writing as a situated-social practice: A review of concepts. Revista Folios, (36), pp. 23-36.
Cheng, J., & Matthews, J. (2018). The relationship between three measures of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 listening and reading. Language Testing, 35(1), pp. 3-25.
Corson, D. (1997). The learning and use of academic English words. Language learning, 47(4), pp. 671-718.
Dabbagh, A. (2016). The predictive role of vocabulary knowledge in listening comprehension: depth or breadth. International Journal of English Language and Translation Studies, 4(3), pp. 1-13.
Dabbagh, A., & Janebi Enayat, M. (2019). The role of vocabulary breadth and depth in predicting second language descriptive writing performance. The Language Learning Journal, 47(5), pp. 575-590.
Eemeren, F. H. V. (2015). From ideal model of critical discussion to situated argumentative discourse: The step-by-step development of the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation. In Reasonableness and effectiveness in argumentative discourse, pp. 127-147.
Eggins, S. (1994). An introduction to systemic functional grammar.
Engber, C. A. (1995). The relationship of lexical proficiency to the quality of ESL compositions. Journal of second language writing, 4(2), pp. 139-155.
Fang, S. h. (2019). English language in education and globalization: a comparative analysis of the role of English in Pakistan and China. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 13.
Feng, T. (2014). Assessing the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge with listening comprehension. The PASAA Journal, 48, pp. 30-56.
Farghal, M. (1998). Vocabulary Development and Lexical Relations. Irbid, Jordan: Dar Al Hilal for Translation.
Henriksen, B. (1999). Three dimensions of vocabulary development. Studies in second language acquisition, 21(2), pp. 303-317.
Henriksen, B. (2008). Declarative lexical knowledge. In Vocabulary and writing in a first and second language (pp. 22-66). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Iqbal, Z. U. (2019). Relationship of Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension in Learning English. Bulletin of Education and Research December, 41(3), pp. 89-100.
Iravani, D. A. (2021). Generic Differentiation in the Relationship between L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Writing Performance. Journal of Modern Research in English Language Studies 8(1), pp. 97-117.
Janebi Enayat, M., & Babaii, E. (2018). Reliable predictors of reduced redundancy test performance: The interaction between lexical bonds and test takers’ depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. Language Testing, 35(1), pp. 121-144.
Kim, Y. (2008). The role of task‐induced involvement and learner proficiency in L2 vocabulary acquisition. Language learning, 58(2), pp. 285-325.
Laufer, B., & Nation, P. (1999). A vocabulary-size test of controlled productive ability. Language testing, 16(1), pp. 33-51.
Leech, D. H. (1991). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary by ISP Nation. New York: Newbury House. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 2(1), p. 275.
Lillis, T. M. (2002). Student writing: Access, regulation, desire. Routledge.
Matthews, J. (2018). Vocabulary for listening: Emerging evidence for high and mid-frequency vocabulary knowledge. System, 72, pp. 23-36.
McCarthy, M. (1990). Vocabulary Knowledge: Oxford. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://www.aijsh.com/shop/articlepdf/org/.../paper660.pdf.
Meara, P. &. (2000). An improved method of assessing productive vocabulary in an L2. System, 28, pp. 19-30.
Meara, P. a. (2004). Beyond vocabulary depth. In Writing and Vocabulary in Foreign Language Acquisition, eds D. Albrechtsen, K. Haastrup and B. Henriksen, pp. 85–96. Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press.
Mehrpour, S., Razmjoo, S. A., & Kian, P. (2011). The Relationship between Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Iranian EFL Learners By:. Two Quarterly Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning University of Tabriz, 2(222), pp. 97-127.
Milton, J. (2013). Measuring the contribution of vocabulary knowledge to proficiency in the four skills.
Moinzadeh, A., & Moslehpour, R. (2012). Depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge: which really matters in reading? Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(5), pp. 1015-1026.
Morales, J. B. (2011). Grammatical cohesion in students ‘argumentative essay.’ Journal of English and Literature, 2(5), pp. 114-127.
Mohammadi, F. E. (2015). Lexical inferencing in listening: depth of vocabulary knowledge and listening proficiency. International Journal of English Language Education, 3(2), pp. 105-117.
Nassaji, H. (2006). The relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and L2 learners’ lexical inferencing strategy use and success. The Modern Language Journal, 90(3), pp. 387-401.
Nation, I. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian modern language review, 63(1), pp. 59-82.
Nation, I. S. P. (1983). Testing and teaching vocabulary. Guidelines, 5(1), pp. 12-25.
Nation, P., & Chung, T. (2009). Teaching and testing vocabulary. In The handbook of language teaching.
Nergis, A. (2013). Exploring the factors that affect reading comprehension of EAP learners. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 12(1), pp. 1-9.
Olinghouse, N. G., & Leaird, J. T. (2009). The relationship between measures of vocabulary and narrative writing quality in second-and fourth-grade students. Reading and Writing, 22(5), pp. 545-565.
Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. (1997). Vocabulary enhancement activities and reading for meaning in second language vocabulary acquisition. Second language vocabulary acquisition: A rationale for pedagogy, 55(4), pp. 174-200.
Qian, D. (1999). Assessing the roles of depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension. Canadian modern language review, 56(2), pp. 282-308.
Qian, D. D. (1998). Depth of vocabulary knowledge, assessing its role in adults' reading comprehension in English as a second language (Doctoral dissertation).
Qian, D. D. (2002). Investigating the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic reading performance: An assessment perspective. Language learning, 52(3), pp. 513-536.
Qian, D. D., & Schedl, M. (2004). Evaluation of an in-depth vocabulary knowledge measure for assessing reading performance. Language Testing, 21(1), pp. 28-52.
Read, J. (1993). The development of a new measure of L2 vocabulary knowledge. Language testing, 10(3), pp. 355-371.
Read, J. (1998). The development of a new measure of L2 vocabulary knowledge. Language Testing, 10, pp. 355–371.
Read, J. (2000). Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Read, J. (2004). Define vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary in a second language: Selection, acquisition, and testing, 10, p. 209.
Read, J. (2007). Second language vocabulary assessment: Current practices and new directions. International Journal of English Studies, 7(2), pp. 105-126.
Richards, J. C. (1976). The role of vocabulary teaching. TESOL quarterly, pp. 77-89.
Shiotsu, T., & Weir, C. J. (2007). The relative significance of syntactic knowledge and vocabulary breadth in the prediction of reading comprehension test performance. Language Testing, 24(1), pp. 99-128.
Schmitt, N. (2008). Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12, pp. 329-363.
Soleymanzadeh, L., & Gholami, J. (2014). Scoring argumentative essays based on thematic progression patterns and IELTS analytic scoring criteria. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, pp. 1811-1819.
Spangler, W. E. (1997). A computer model of reactive planning and implementation strategy in program-constrained decision-making.
Stæhr, L. S. (2008). Vocabulary size and the skills of listening, reading and writing. Language Learning Journal, 36(2), pp. 139-152.
Stæhr, L. S. (2009). Vocabulary knowledge and advanced listening comprehension in English as a foreign language. Studies in second language acquisition, 31(4), pp. 577-607.
Paribakht, S. I. M. A., & Wesche, M. (1996). Enhancing vocabulary acquisition through reading: a hierarchy of text-related exercise types. Canadian modern language review, 52(2), pp. 155-178.
Toulmin, S. (2003). The uses of argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Troyka, L. Q. (2007). Quick access: Reference for writers (2nd ed.). Toronto: Pearson.
Varnaseri, M. (2015). The relationship between depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and writing performance of Iranian MA students of TOFEL. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods (MJLTM), ISSN: 2251-6204.
Wang, S. (2015). An empirical study on the role of vocabulary knowledge in EFL listening comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(5), p. 989.
Wesche, M. (1996). Assessing second language vocabulary knowledge: Depth and breadth. Canadian Modern Language Review, 53(1), pp. 13–40.
Wilkins, D. A. (1972). Linguistics in language teaching (Vol. 111). London: Edward Arnold.
Zhang, B., & Anual, S. B. (2008). The role of vocabulary in reading comprehension: The case of secondary school students learning English in Singapore. RELC Journal 39(1), pp. 51–76.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Arbia Abdullah, Aleem Shakir
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
All articles published by MARS Publishers are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. This means:
- everyone has free and unlimited access to the full-text of all articles published in MARS Publishers' journals;
- everyone is free to re-use the published material if proper accreditation/citation of the original publication is given.