Embedding Elements from Foreign Language into The Native Language Through Pashto-English Code-Mixed Speech
Keywords:Speech Style, Social Context, Code Switching, Code Mixing, Imbedding Elements, Foreign Language, Native Language
An individual's language style may undergo changes based on factors such as the topic of conversation, the passage of time, the interlocutors involved, and the social context or setting of the conversation. During this shift in speech style, various elements from one language may be incorporated into another through diverse strategies. This phenomenon, known as code-switching and code-mixing, involves the embedding of foreign elements into the native language. One crucial strategy in this process is the adjustment of speech style influenced by the context or setting, whether formal or informal. For instance, speakers tend to exercise greater caution in their speech and diction in more formal contexts, and conversely, adopt a more relaxed approach in informal settings. This study aims to explore the strategies of style shift observed when incorporating elements from English into Pashto, focusing on the influence of social context. Primary data for this study were collected from native Pashto speakers, involving spoken corpora from forty randomly selected participants. Each participant engaged in a half-hour conversation recorded via mobile phone, encompassing both formal academic and informal settings. The data collection occurred in two consecutive stages: the first stage involved gathering data in a formal setting, while the second stage captured speech in an informal context. Following data collection, tokens representing instances where participants altered their speech style were extracted from the recorded conversations. These selected tokens were then analyzed using the cross-comparison technique. The findings reveal a correlation between the level of formality in speech and the degree of attention paid to it, indicating that a more formal speech style emerges when greater consideration is given to the language used, and conversely, a more informal style is adopted with less attention to formality.
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