Effect of Research Design on Distribution of Prototypical Participant-Oriented Lexical Bundles: A Corpus-Based Study of Quantitative Research Articles


  • Areej Alamghir MPhil. Scholar, Department of Applied Linguistics, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Dr. Aleem Shakir Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Linguistics, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.




Quantitative research articles, prototypical participant-Oriented Lexical Bundle, Kruskal-Wallis H tests, PPOLBs


This study aims to evaluate Prototypical Participant-Oriented Lexical Bundles (PPOLBs) in quantitative research articles to discern potential variations between correlational and experimental research designs. The selection of PPOLBs for this investigation aligns with the taxonomy of functional categories developed by Hyland (2008a) and later refined by Salazar (2014) in terms of prototypicality. The study encompasses five major disciplines, 11 subjects, and a total of 2576 research articles. Data distribution is stratified based on research design, journal impact factors, and article sections. The AntConc program was employed to retrieve the frequency of PPOLBs. Initially, a 3-factor MANOVA was used to explore the effects of research design on the distribution of PPOLBs; however, due to the absence of normal distribution, the analysis transitioned to the Kruskal-Wallis H Test. Among the three categories, only STNC_LBs exhibited a statistically significant difference (2(1) = 11.489, p = 0.01), while ACK_LBs and the other subcategory displayed no notable variations. The findings of this study aim to equip second language students with insights into the effective use of linguistic elements based on registers and proficient writing.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Areej Alamghir, MPhil. Scholar, Department of Applied Linguistics, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

Areej Alamghir has completed her MPhil in Applied Linguistics in 2022. She is passionate about raising the quality of English language teaching. Her area of interest is ELT, Testing and Evaluation, and Corpus.

Dr. Aleem Shakir, Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Linguistics, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

Dr. Aleem Shakir is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Applied Linguistics, Government College University, Faisalabad. His areas of interests are ELT, Phonetics and Phonology, ESP, Testing and Evaluation and Corpus Linguistics.


Anthony, L. (2014). AntConc (Version 3.4. 3)[Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University.

Anthony, L. (2022). AntFileConverter (Version 2.0.2) [Computer Software]. Waseda University. Tokyo, Japan. [Software]. Available from https://www.laurenceanthony.net/software.

Bao, K., & Liu, M. (2022). A Corpus Study of Lexical Bundles Used Differently in Dissertations Abstracts Produced by Chinese and American Ph.D. Students of Linguistics. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 893773-893773.

Biber, D. (2007). University language: A Corpus-based study of spoken and written registers. TESL-EJ, 11(2).

Biber, D., Conrad, S., & Cortes, V. (2004). If you look at…: Lexical bundles in university teaching and textbooks. Applied linguistics, 25(3), 371-405.

Candarli, D., & Jones, S. (2019). Paradigmatic influences on lexical bundles in research articles in the discipline of education. Corpora, 14(2), 237e263.

Cao, F. & Hu, G. (2014). Interactive meta-discourse in research articles: A comparative study of paradigmatic and disciplinary influences. Journal of Pragmatics,66, 15–31.

Cao, F. (2021). A comparative study of lexical bundles across paradigms and disciplines. Corpora, 16(1), 97-128.

Chen, Y. H., & Baker, P. (2010). Lexical bundles in L1 and L2 academic writing.

Cortes, V. (2004). Lexical bundles in published and student disciplinary writing: Examples from history and biology. English for specific purposes, 23(4), 397-423.

Esfandiari, R., & Barbary, F. (2017). A contrastive corpus-driven study of lexical bundles between English writers and Persian writers in psychology research articles. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 29, 21-42.

Gilquin, G., Granger, S., &Paquot, M. (2007). Learner corpora: The missing link in EAP pedagogy. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6(4), 319-335.

Granger, S. (2003). The international corpus of learner English: a new resource for foreign language learning and teaching and second language acquisition research. Tesol Quarterly, 37(3), 538-546.

Granger, S., &Paquot, M. (2008). Disentangling the phraseological web. S. Granger & Meunier (Eds.).

Gray, B. (2015). On the use of demonstrative pronouns and determiners as cohesive devices: A focus on sentence-initial this/these in academic prose. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9(3), 167-183

Howarth, P. (1996). Phraseology in English Academic Writing. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Hyland, K. (2000). Disciplinary discourses. Harlow: Pearson Education. International Journal of Lexicography, 16(2).

Hyland, K. (2008a). Academic clusters: Text patterning in published and postgraduate writing. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18(1), 41–62.

Hyland, K. (2008b). As can be seen: Lexical bundles and disciplinary variation. English for specific purposes, 27(1), 4-21.

Johns, T. (2002). Data-driven learning: The perpetual challenge. In Teaching and learning by doing corpus analysis (pp. 105-117). Brill.

Lu, X., & Deng, J. (2019). With the rapid development: A contrastive analysis of lexical bundles in dissertation abstracts by Chinese and L1 English doctoral students. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 39, 21-36.

Major, M. (2006). Longman exams dictionary.

McCarthy, M. (2008). Felicity O‟ Dell. Academic Vocabulary in Use. CUP.

McCarthy, M., McCarten, J., & Sandiford, H. (2005). Touchstone level 1 workbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. (2019). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Pearson. One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.

Neely, E., & Cortes, V. (2011). A little bit about: Analyzing and teaching lexical bundles in academic lectures.

O'keeffe, A., McCarthy, M., & Carter, R. (2007). From corpus to classroom: Language use and language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Panah, E., Yunus, M. M., &Embi, M. A. (2013). Google-informed patter-hunting and pattern-defining: Implication for language pedagogy. Asian Social Science, 9(3), 229.

Paquot, M. (2007). EAP vocabulary in EFL learner writing: from extraction to analysis: A phraseology-oriented approach. Unpublished PhD thesis. Universitécatholique de Louvain, Centre for English Corpus Linguistics.

Ren, J. (2021). Variability and functions of lexical bundles in research articles of applied linguistics and pharmaceutical sciences. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 50, 100968.

Rezoug, F, & Vincent, B. (2018). Exploring Lexical Bundles in the Algerian Corpus of Engineering. Arab Journal of Applied Linguistics,3(1), 47-77.

Rundell, M. (2007). Macmillan English dictionary for advanced learners (2nd ed.). Macmillan Education.

Salazar, D., Verdaguer, I., Laso, N. J., Comelles, E., Castaño, E., &Hilferty, J. (2013). Formal and functional variation of lexical bundles in biomedical English. Biomedical English. A Corpus-based Approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 39-53.

Shirazizadeh, M., &Amirfazlian, R. (2021). Lexical bundles in theses, articles and textbooks of applied linguistics: Investigating intradisciplinary uniformity and variation. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 49, 100946.

Simpson-Vlach, R., & Ellis, N. C. (2010). An academic formulas list: New methods in phraseology research. Applied linguistics, 31(4), 487-512.

Sinclair, J. (2005). Corpus and Text-Basic Principles in Developing Linguistic Corpora: A Guide to Good Practice, ed. M. Wynne.

Varghaei, E., & Khodadadi, G. (2022). Comparing Lexical Bundles in Medical Research Article Abstracts of Iranian and Foreign Journals. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 22(3).

Verdaguer, I., Laso, N. J., Guzmán-González, T., Salazar, D., Comelles, E., Castaño, E., &Hilferty, J. (2013). SciE-Lex: a lexical database. Biomedical English: A corpus-based approach, 21-38.

Wei, Y., & Lei, L. (2011). Lexical bundles in the academic writing of advanced Chinese EFL learners. RELC Journal, 42(2), 155-166.

Wright, H. R. (2019). Lexical bundles in stand-alone literature reviews: Sections, frequencies, and functions. English for Specific Purposes, 54, 1-14.

Yang, M. (2022). Connecting the functions of lexical bundles and moves in published research articles: The case of developmental and educational psychology. Nordic journal of English studies.

Yin, X., & Li, S. (2021). Lexical bundles as an intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary mark: A corpus-based study of research articles from business, biology, and applied linguistics. Applied Corpus Linguistics, 1(1), 100006.




How to Cite

Alamghir, A., & Shakir, D. A. (2023). Effect of Research Design on Distribution of Prototypical Participant-Oriented Lexical Bundles: A Corpus-Based Study of Quantitative Research Articles. Linguistic Forum - A Journal of Linguistics, 5(4), 57–73. https://doi.org/10.53057/linfo/2023.5.4.3