The Impact of First Language on the Use of English Diphthongs of Pakistani Multilingual Females
Keywords:diphthongs, linguistically, Pakistani English, multi-linguals, pronunciation, acoustic analysis, phonetics and phonology
This research elaborates on the production of diphthongs in Pakistani multilingual females and how vowels are used by Pakistani multilingual females. The research type is positivistic and objective. Results are collected only from females because there could be pitch variations between females and males. Both male and female speakers articulated the diphthongs in a singular manner. Both have articulated three central diphthongs, and three closing diphthongs, including two closings, are not realised as diphthongs. Both the vowels are articulated without gliding as monothongs. Pakistani multilinguals insert short vowels instead of long vowels; replacing one vowel with another is a mispronunciation of diphthongs. Sometimes diphthongs are mispronounced in Pakistani multilingualism and sometimes replaced by monothongs, which do not occur in English phonology. The difference between male and female speakers is duration of articulation. In this research, the female speakers articulated the five diphthongs. This research is not only based on auditory perception, which is subjective, but also on spectrogram evidence. The samples collected for this research are audio files of pronounced diphthongs converted to spectrograms. The research has analysed the diphthongs acoustically. This study focuses on Pakistani multilingual females in general. Pakistani English is associated with standard British English. Standard British English is like a mother to the Pakistani language because it laid the foundation for Pakistani English, which gradually changed under different factors. Changes are part of any variety of language. The same is true for multilingual Pakistanis. This research helped teachers focus on spoken English. Because this study was conducted on a small sample size, it can be applied to a much larger population sample. This study has revealed various barriers to Pakistani multilinguals understanding the pronunciation of diphthongs.
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